First Name Middle Name Last Name Format For Essay

  • Book with One Author


    Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of book. Place of Publication: Publisher.


    Wegenstein, B. (2006). Getting under the skin: The body and media theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Chapter from Edited Book


    Chapter Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of essay. In Editor First Initial. Middle Initial. Last Name (Ed.), Title of edited book (pp. Page Numbers of Chapter). Place of Publication: Publisher.


    Tiggemann, M. (2002). Media influences on body image development. In T. F. Cash & T. Pruzinsky (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice (pp. 91-98). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

  • Journal Article

  • Format:

    Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume Number (Issue Number), Page Numbers. DOI


    Schooler, D. (2008). Real women have curves: A longitudinal investigation of TV and the body image development of Latina adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 23, 132-153. doi:10.1177/0743558407310712

    Grabe, S., Ward, L. M., & Hyde, J. S. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: A meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 460-476. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.134.3.460

  • Magazine Articles


    Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume Number, Page Numbers.


    Underwood, N. (2001 August 14). Body envy. Maclean's, 113, 36-40.

  • Web Sites

    Format: Varies depending on what type document it is. The basic citation format includes:

    Organization or Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Publication Year, Month Day) Title of document. Print Publication Information. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

    1. If the source does not have a date of publication, use (n.d.).
    2. If the publication has no author, begin with the title and then the date.


    American Psychological Association Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2007). Report of the Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved April 12, 2008, from http://

    Generally, with names in the Western world that consist of a given name ("first name") and a surname, the surname is used for formal occasions, and the given name is used only in cases of familiarity. Thus in your sentence you'd say "Out of this contract, Whitney developed…".

    You would use "Eli" only if you wanted it to appear informal and suggest that you were on a "first-name basis" with Mr. Whitney — knew him intimately — and possibly so was your audience. (E.g. you'd use it if you were toasting your friend "Eli" among an audience of his friends.)

    Incidentally, when talking to people, there's a greater assumption of familiarity—you can use the given name in more occasions—in America than in Europe (and in younger people than in older), where using the given name indiscriminately can cause offence or irritate. In general, it's always safe to use the surname, until you're asked to use the given name.

    [Caveat: These naming conventions, however, are far from universal. In China, for instance, it's customary to put the surname/family name first, and the given name later. It's the same way in some European countries, I think. Also, many Indian (especially South Indian) names do not have a surname, and consist of just a (given) name followed or preceded by an initial letter (or two) that stands for the given name of one's father (and possibly a town). Some people, forced by the demands of Western convention to have a surname, expand that letter and put their father's name as their last name, in which case if you used "Mr. [last name]", you'd be addressing their father.]


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