by Rush H. Limbaugh, Jr.
It was a glorious morning. The sun was shining and the wind was from the southeast. Up especially early, a tall, bony, redheaded young Virginian found time to buy a new thermometer, for which he paid three pounds, fifteen shillings. He also bought gloves for Martha, his wife, who was ill at home.
Thomas Jefferson arrived early at the statehouse. The temperature was 72.5: and the horseflies weren't nearly so bad at that hour. It was a lovely room, very large, with gleaming white walls. The chairs were comfortable. Facing the single door were two brass fireplaces, but they would not be used today.
The moment the door was shut, and it was always kept locked, the room became oven. The tall windows were shut, so that loud quarreling voices could not be heard by passers by. Small openings atop the windows allowed a slight stir of air, and also a large number of horseflies. Jefferson records that "the horseflies were dexterous in finding necks, and the silk of stocking was as nothing to them." All discussion was punctuated by the slap of hands on necks.
On the wall at the back, facing the President's desk, was a panoply--consisting of a drum, swords, and banners seized from Fort Ticonderoga the previous year. Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold had captured the place, shouting that they were taking it "in the name if the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress!"
Now Congress got to work, promptly taking up an emergency measure about which there was discussion but no dissension. "Resolved: That an application be made to the Committee of Safety of Pennsylvania for a supply of flints for the troops at New York."
Then Congress transformed itself into a committee of the whole, The Declaration of Independence was read aloud once more, and debate resumed. Though Jefferson was the best writer of all of them, he had been somewhat verbose. Congress hacked the excess away. They did a good job, as a side-by-side comparison of the rough draft and the final text shows. They cut the phrase "by a self-assumed power." "Climb" was replaced by "must read," then "must" was eliminated, then the whole sentence, and soon the whole paragraph was cut. Jefferson groaned as they continued what he later called "their depredations." "Inherent and inalienable rights" came out "certain unalienable rights," and to this day no one knows who suggested the elegant change.
A total of 86 alterations were made. Almost 500 words were eliminated, leaving 1,337. At last, after three days of wrangling, the document was put to a vote.
Here in this hall Patrick Henry had once thundered: "I am no longer a Virginian, Sir, but an American." But today the loud, sometimes bitter argument stilled, and without fanfare the vote was taken from north to south by colonies, as was the custom. On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was adopted.
There were no trumpets blown. No one stood on his chair and cheered. The afternoon was waning and Congress had no thought of delaying the full calendar of routine business on its hands. For several hours they worked on many other problems before adjourning for the day.
What kind of men were the 56 signers who adopted the Declaration of Independence and who, by their signing, committed an act of treason against the Crown? To each of you the names Franklin, Adams, Hancock, and Jefferson are almost as familiar as household words. Most of us, however, know nothing of the other signers. Who were they? What happened to them?
I imagine that many of you are somewhat surprised at the names not there: George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry. All were elsewhere.
Ben Franklin was the only really old man. Eighteen were under 40; three were in their 20s. Of the 56, almost half--24--were judges and lawyers. Eleven were merchants, 9 were land-owners and farmers, and the remaining 12 were doctors, ministers, and politicians.
With only a few exceptions, such as Samuel Adams of Massachusetts, these were men of substantial property. All but two had families. The vast majority were men of education and standing in their communities. They had economic security as few men had in the 18th century.
Each had more to lose from revolution than he had to gain by it. John Hancock, one of the richest men in America, already had a price of 500 pounds on his head. He signed in enormous letter so "that his Majesty could now read his name without glasses and could now double the reward." Ben Franklin wryly noted: "Indeed we must all hang together, otherwise we shall most assuredly hang separately." Fat Benjamin Harrison of Virginia told tiny Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts: "With me it will all be over in a minute, but you, you will be dancing on air an hour after I am gone."
These men knew what they risked. The penalty for treason was death by hanging. And remember: a great British fleet was already at anchor in New York Harbor.
They were sober men. There were no dreamy-eyed intellectuals or draft card burners here. They were far from hot-eyed fanatics, yammering for an explosion. They simply asked for the status quo. It was change they resisted. It was equality with the mother country they desired. It was taxation with representation they sought. They were all conservatives, yet they rebelled.
It was principle, not property, that had brought these men to Philadelphia. Two of them became presidents of the United States. Seven of them became state governors. One died in office as vice president of the United States. Several would go on to be U.S. Senators. One, the richest man in America, in 1828 founded the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. One, a delegate from Philadelphia, was the only real poet, musician and philosopher of the signers (it was he, Francis Hopkinson--not Betsy Ross--who designed the United States flag).
Richard Henry Lee, a delegate from Virginia, had introduced the resolution to adopt the Declaration of Independence in June of 1776. He was prophetic is his concluding remarks: "Why then sir, why do we longer delay? Why still deliberate? Let this happy day give birth to an American Republic. Let her arise not to devastate and to conquer but to reestablish the reign of peace and law. The eyes of Europe are fixed upon us. She demands of us a living example of freedom that may exhibit a contrast in the felicity of the citizen to the ever increasing tyranny which desolates her polluted shores. She invites us to prepare an asylum where the unhappy may find solace, and the persecuted repose. If we are not this day wanting in our duty, the names of the American legislators of 1776 will be placed by posterity at the side of all of those whose memory has been and ever will be dear to virtuous men and good citizens."
Though the resolution was formally adopted July 4, it was not until July 8 that two of the states authorized their delegates to sign, and it was not until August 2 that the signers met at Philadelphia to actually put their names to the Declaration.
William Ellery, delegate from Rhode Island, was curious to see the signers' faces as they committed this supreme act of personal courage. He saw some men sign quickly, "but in no face was he able to discern real fear." Stephen Hopkins, Ellery's colleague from Rhode Island, was a man past 60. As he signed with a shaking pen, he declared: "My hand trembles, but my heart does not."
Even before the list was published, the British marked down every member of Congress suspected of having put his name to treason. All of them became the objects of vicious manhunts. Some were taken. Some, like Jefferson, had narrow escapes. All who had property or families near British strongholds suffered.
Francis Lewis, New York delegate, saw his home plundered and his estates, in what is now Harlem, completely destroyed by British soldiers. Mrs. Lewis was captured and treated with great brutality. Though she was later exchanged for two British prisoners through the efforts of Congress, she died from the effects of her abuse.
William Floyd, another New York delegate, was able to escape with his wife and children across Long Island Sound to Connecticut, where they lived as refugees without income for seven years. When they came home, they found a devastated ruin.
Phillips Livingstone had all his great holdings in New York confiscated and his family driven out of their home. Livingstone died in 1778 still working in Congress for the cause.
Louis Morris, the fourth New York delegate, saw all his timber, crops, and livestock taken. For seven years he was barred from his home and family.
John Hart of Trenton, New Jersey, risked his life to return home to see his dying wife. Hessian soldiers rode after him, and he escaped in the woods. While his wife lay on her deathbed, the soldiers ruined his farm and wrecked his Homestead. Hart, 65, slept in caves and woods as he was hunted across the countryside. When at long last, emaciated by hardship, he was able to sneak home, he found his wife had already been buried, and his 13 children taken away. He never saw them again. He died a broken man in 1779, without ever finding his family.
Dr. John Witherspoon, signer, was president of the College of New Jersey, later called Princeton. The British occupied the town of Princeton, and billeted troops in the college. They trampled and burned the finest college library in the country.
Judge Richard Stockton, another New Jersey delegate signer, had rushed back to his estate in an effort to evacuate his wife and children. The family found refuge with friends, but a sympathizer betrayed them. Judge Stockton was pulled from bed in the night and brutally beaten by the arresting soldiers. Thrown into a common jail, he was deliberately starved. Congress finally arranged for Stockton's parole, but his health was ruined. The judge was released as an invalid, when he could no longer harm the British cause. He
returned home to find his estate looted and did not live to see the triumph of the evolution. His family was forced to live off charity.
Robert Morris, merchant prince of Philadelphia, delegate and signer, met Washington's appeals and pleas for money year after year. He made and raised arms and provisions which made it possible for Washington to cross the Delaware at Trenton. In the process he lost 150 ships at sea, bleeding his own fortune and credit almost dry.
George Clymer, Pennsylvania signer, escaped with his family from their home, but their property was completely destroyed by the British in the Germantown and Brandywine campaigns.
Dr. Benjamin Rush, also from Pennsylvania, was forced to flee to Maryland. As a heroic surgeon with the army, Rush had several narrow escapes.
John Morton, a Tory in his views previous to the debate, lived in a strongly loyalist area of Pennsylvania. When he came out for independence, most of his neighbors and even some of his relatives ostracized him. He was a sensitive and troubled man, and many believed this action killed him. When he died in 1777, his last words to his tormentors were: "Tell them that they will live to see the hour when they shall acknowledge it [the signing] to have been the most glorious service that I rendered to my country."
William Ellery, Rhode Island delegate, saw his property and home burned to the ground. Thomas Lynch, Jr., South Carolina delegate, had his health broken from privation and exposures while serving as a company commander in the military. His doctors ordered him to seek a cure in the West Indies and on the voyage He and his young bride were drowned at sea.
Edward Rutledge, Arthur Middleton, and Thomas Heyward, Jr., the other three South Carolina signers, were taken by the British in the siege of Charleston. They were carried as prisoners of war to St. Augustine, Florida, where they were singled out for indignities. They were exchanged at the end of the war, the British in the meantime having completely devastated their large land holdings and estates.
Thomas Nelson, signer of Virginia, was at the front in command of the Virginia military forces. With British General Charles Cornwallis in Yorktown, fire from 70 heavy American guns began to destroy Yorktown piece by piece. Lord Cornwallis and his staff moved their headquarters into Nelson's palatial home. While American cannonballs were making a shambles of the town, the house of Governor Nelson remained untouched. Nelson turned in rage to the American gunners and asked, "Why do you spare my home?" They replied, "Sir, out of respect to you." Nelson cried, "Give me the cannon!" and fired on his magnificent home himself, smashing it to bits. But Nelson's sacrifice was not quite over. He had raised $2 million for the Revolutionary cause by pledging his own estates. When the loans came due, a newer peacetime Congress refused to honor them, and Nelson's property was forfeited. He was never reimbursed. He died, impoverished, a few years later at the age of 50.
Of those 56 who signed the Declaration of Independence, nine died of wounds or hardships during the war. Five were captured and imprisoned, in each case with brutal treatment. Several lost wives, sons or entire families. One lost his 13 children. Two wives were brutally treated. All were at one time or another the victims of manhunts and driven from their homes. Twelve signers had their homes completely burned. Seventeen lost everything they owned. Yet not one defected or went back on his pledged word. Their honor, and the nation they sacrificed so much to create, is still intact.
And, finally, there is the New Jersey signer, Abraham Clark. He gave two sons to the officer corps in the Revolutionary Army. They were captured and sent to the infamous British prison hulk afloat in New York harbor known as the hell ship "Jersey," where 11,000 American captives were to die. The younger Clarks were treated with a special brutality because of their father. One was put in solitary and given no food. With the end almost in sight, with the war almost won, no one could have blamed Abraham Clark for acceding to the British request when they offered him his sons' lives if he would recant and come out for the King and parliament. The utter despair in this man's heart, the anguish in his very soul, must reach out to each one of us down through 200 years with his answer: "No."
The 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence proved by their every deed that they made no idle boast when they composed the most magnificent curtain line in history. "And for the support of this Declaration with a firm reliance on the protection of divine providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor."
The first item is the "Gary Hildreth" net.bogus article, which contains numerous factual inaccuracies. A careful investigation of this piece in its various versions is at http://home.nycap.rr.com/elbrecht/signers/signerindex.html. The key article at that site appears below, immediately after the drivel. The drivel appears to be a possibly unintended promotion of the cult of heroic martyrdom. The facts undermine the case. Heroism without martyrdom is the norm, not the exception.
A standard net form of the drivel:
Have you ever wondered what happened to the 56 men who signed the Declaration of Independence?
Five signers were captured by the British as traitors, and tortured before they died. Twelve had their homes ransacked and burned. Two lost their sons in the Revolutionary Army, another had two sons captured. Nine of the 56 fought and died from wounds or hardships of the Revolutionary War.
They signed and they pledged their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor.
What kind of men were they? Twenty-four were lawyers and jurists. Eleven were merchants, nine were farmers and large plantation owners; men of means, well educated. But they signed the Declaration of Independence knowing full well that the penalty would be death if they were captured.
Carter Braxton of Virginia, a wealthy planter and trader, saw his ships swept from the seas by the British Navy. He sold his home and properties to pay his debts, and died in rags.
Thomas McKeam was so hounded by the British that he was forced to move his family almost constantly. He served in the Congress without pay, and his family was kept in hiding. His possessions were taken from him, and poverty was his reward.
Vandals or soldiers looted the properties of Dillery, Hall, Clymer, Walton, Gwinnett, Heyward, Ruttledge, and Middleton.
At the battle of Yorktown, Thomas Nelson, Jr., noted that the British General Cornwallis had taken over the Nelson home for his headquarters. He quietly urged General George Washington to open fire. The home was destroyed, and Nelson died bankrupt.
Francis Lewis had his home and properties destroyed. The enemy jailed his wife, and she died within a few months.
John Hart was driven from his wife's bedside as she was dying. Their 13 children fled for their lives. His fields and his gristmill were laid to waste. For more than a year he lived in forests and caves, returning home to find his wife dead and his children vanished. A few weeks later he died from exhaustion and a broken heart. Norris and Livingston suffered similar fates.
Such were the stories and sacrifices of the American Revolution. These were not wild eyed, rabble-rousing ruffians. They were soft-spoken men of means and education. They had security, but they valued liberty more. Standing tall, straight, and unwavering, they pledged: "For the support of this declaration, with firm reliance on the protection of the divine providence, we mutually pledge to each other, our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor."
They gave you and me a free and independent America. The history books never told you a lot of what happened in the Revolutionary War. We didn't just fight the British. We were British subjects at that time and we fought our own government! Perhaps you can now see why our founding fathers had a hatred for sanding armies, and allowed through the Second Amendment for everyone to be armed.
Frankly, I can't read this without crying. Some of us take these liberties so much for granted...We shouldn't.
Here is a careful and highly informative rebuttal, by James Elbrecht, 2000-Jun-26, from http://home.nycap.rr.com/elbrecht/signers/HARVEY-reb.htm:
Since Harvey's words are the earliest I've been able to verify in the past year, I'll answer them as he wrote them. He has been plagiarized by many folks since [Hildreth, Trumbore, and countless others who said it was anonymous]. These words have appeared in print and all across the web for years, and much of their rhetoric is simply not true. By using Harvey's 1956 words, I hope it will illuminate that these words are as far from 'anonymous' as they are true.
There have been several other essays written since 1956 that echo the tone and many of the incorrect legends that Harvey fell prey to believing. I believe that the others were written independently because they have included other facts & legends, and left some of Harvey's more compelling ones out. I suspect that some pre-1956 source, a quick read, and with a reputation that did not incline any of these entertainers to fact-check, is lying out there waiting to be rediscovered.
The essay that I'm quoting appears as part of Paul Harvey's _The Rest of the Story_, Hanover House, 1956. LOC Card #56-9395
In 1975 it was reprinted, with a short preface, in a booklet called _Our Lives, Our Fortunes, Our Sacred Honor_ by Word Books, Waco Texas. [the copyright notice in that issue mentions an additional copyright date of 1969, as well as the 1956 & 1975 copyrights]
I will not include the entire essay, but only that which is either in error, or which appears to me to be a key to its, and all the other's, origins. I will uses ellipses (.......) where there is a break what I am quoting. Since Harvey uses them frequently, I will include parens around my ellipses to prevent confusion. The Harvey text will be set in and in italics.
The United states of America was born in 1776. But it was conceived 169
years before that.
All others of the world's revolutions before and since were initiated by men who
had nothing to lose. Our founders had everything to lose... nothing to gain....
except one thing......
Our Sacred Honor
These were men of means, well educated.
Most of the Signers were certainly men of means. Notably, though Sam Adams was so poor that the people he represented took up a collection to send him to Philadelphia in clothing befitting a representative of their town. Many of those well educated men were not educated by colleges, but on their own. Some acquired as many as three honorary degrees from leading universities without ever having gone beyond the most basic of formal education.
Twenty-four were lawyers and jurists.
Eleven were merchants. Nine were farmers and owners of large plantations.
This part is a common tie between all the bogus essays. They all try to define the Signers so simply, and it just cannot be done. Dumas Malone, in his _Making of the Declaration of Independence_ pp95 & 96, wrote; "They cannot be classified with precision on grounds of occupation, for this was not an age of specialization and occupations constantly overlapped."
Truer words were never spoken. Some, like Sam Adams, were singularly successful at being congressmen while not doing too well at their chosen 'occupation'. Many, like Nelson, were born into such wealth and standing, that their real calling was public life, and they hired folks to 'keep the books' at home while they dabbled in whatever struck their fancy. Many of these men had varied interests and were proficient at many trades.
Despite that, I felt compelled to make some attempt myself. Even though I have 13 men defined by only one occupation, and 2 as 'gentlemen', the remaining 41 who had a variety of occupations swelled the list to 141 entries long. The 'single occupation' men were lawyers (6), merchants (5) and 2 public servants that will likely go to either the 'agriculturist' or 'gentlemen' categories. The list is sure to get longer as I read more about each signer, but since I've finally gotten at least one entry for all of them, I thought I'd illustrate why I think the simple claim of "24 lawyers, 11 merchants, and 9 farmers" is both misleading and a clue to the source of all these inaccurate essays.
The longest category in my list is 'public service'. For this category, I only included those who held a public office prior to 1770. Many got involved in 1765, during the Stamp Act years. Others were 2nd or 3rd generation politicians.
Of the 44 who were 30 years old by 1770, I have 31 in my 'Public service' category so far.
First the lawyers. Some of the essays say '24[or 25] lawyers', and others say '24 lawyers and jurists'. There is a difference between an 18th century lawyer, and an 18th century jurist. There was no need to be a lawyer to be a jurist-- as several of the signers prove.[one even sat on the Supreme Court with no legal training]
My numbers so far;
11 Judges & Justices
[28 were either lawyers or Judges or Justices before they signed]
Then the merchants. I count 18. Some had retired, but most of the retired merchants still received profits from their business.
The farmers were the toughest ones of all. The only one who I still might consider a farmer in the 20th century sense of the word would be John Hart and he wore several other hats as well..[Mill owner, politician, Justice]
Many of the signers were born into very wealthy families who owned huge estates which supported them. Others built these huge estates themselves. To call them farmers, is akin to calling Bill Gates a software salesman. It's accurate, but misleading.
I can't find a term that applies broadly enough to cover the southern planters like Braxton or Carroll [that isn't a man who plants cotton or rice-- he is a businessman who runs a business], and the northern aristocrats like Morris & Floyd, who essentially did the same thing & are likely counted as farmers in those essays.
Rather than resort to 'farmer', I've used 'agriculturists'. I didn't count those who were interested in farming as a hobby, but only those who derived a substantial income from their properties. [cattle, fruit, produce, lumber, 'renters', etc.] Of them, I counted 16.
This is my tally;
32 'public service' prior to 1770
11 Judges & Justices
[28 were either lawyers or Judges or Justices before they signed]
16 planters, farmers, agriculturists
There was also a brewer, a cooper, a couple inventors, a musician, a poet, a printer, a publicist, a couple scientists, a seaman, a shoemaker, and a [land?] speculator.
Fifty-six men placed their names beneath that pledge. Fifty-six men knew-when they signed-that they were risking everything.
They knew if they won this fight, the best they could expect would be years of hardship in a struggling nation. If they lost, they'd face a hangman's rope.
Carter Braxton of Virginia, wealthy planter and trader, saw his ships swept from the seas. To pay his debts he lost his home and all his properties and died in rags.
He may have died poor, I haven't located a good biography of him yet, or read his will. He died at his spacious estate, Chericoke, so I suspect 'died in rags' might be misleading.
He did lose his ships which were flying the British flag when the Revolution began. They weren't necessarily 'swept from the seas', but more likely retained by his former business partner, the British Government. He did suffer losses in property due to the Revolution. He recouped those losses, though after the Revolution, and his next big setback was 'businesses gone sour' around the end of the 1700's. Though a great Patriot and Statesman, his business practices have met with considerable criticism.
Thomas McKean of Delaware was so harassed by the enemy that he was forced to move his family five times in five months He served in Congress without pay, his family in poverty and in hiding.
McKean [misspelled McKeam in so many copies floating around the net] was representing DE, but he was born in PA, and lived in Philadelphia. He held dual citizenship in the two colonies, and is the only representative to serve in congress throughout the entire war. [While holding positions of 'President of the State Of Delaware' for 3 years, president of congress for 1, and Chief Justice of Pennsylvania for several years along with other positions.]
He put his name on a list of volunteers to lead militia troops. After the July votes, he headed off to Perth Amboy to take charge of A Battalion of Pennsylvania 'Associators'. He arrived back in Philadelphia after the Aug 2 'Signing', so his name was added much later. Probably shortly after Jan 1777.
Vandals looted the properties of Ellery and Clymer and Hall and Gwinnett and Walton and Heyward and Rutledge and Middleton.
This is a phrase most often repeated in many of the copy-cat essays. Many don't spell Ellery or Rutledge correctly. It is probably true that some of the properties of those men were vandalized. [one of Ellery's homes was burned]
The same can be said for many more of the Signers, and nearly all of the wealthy people in the war-torn areas of our country in those years. Both Armies, the British and the Americans, 'foraged' for food. If a property owner had food, or lumber or livestock or wagons or horses, any army passing through was likely to appropriate them for their use. The most spacious homes were commandeered for billeting soldiers and officers of both sides. Loyalists would vandalize the homes of their Patriot neighbors.
Notable among the homes which were in occupied territory, but were left with little or no damage are homes belonging to; Floyd, Lewis Morris, Hopkinson, Stockton, Middleton, Witherspoon, Hart, Nelson, Jefferson, Harrison, Heyward, both Adams's, Hancock, Rush, Huntington, Wilson, Robert Morris, and the Lee brothers.
And Thomas Nelson, Jr., of Virginia, raised two million dollars on his own signature to provision our allies . . . the French fleet. After the war he personally paid back the loans, wiped out his entire estate. He was never reimbursed by his government.
In the final battle for Yorktown he, Nelson, urged General Washington to fire on his . . . Nelson's . . . own home, which was occupied by Cornwallis.
It was destroyed. He died bankrupt and was buried in an unmarked grave. Thomas Nelson, Jr., had pledged "his life, his fortune and his sacred honor."
The $2,000,000 figure is repeated often. That might be an accurate translation of 30,000 1780 American pounds to 1956 US dollars. 30,000 pounds is what Nelson tried to have reimbursed by the VA government after 1783. The VA government did refuse to pay back the loans, but his estate was never in any danger of being 'wiped out'.
In the battle of Yorktown, Nelson, as Governor of VA, and the head of the VA militia was in command of the American battery which was destroying the headquarters of Cornwallis in Yorktown. The home, however, was not his, but the home of his uncle and namesake, Thomas, The Secretary, Nelson.
Soon after that, Nelson was officer of the day and reviewing the French troops in the center of the American lines. It was on this day that legend says he offered 5 guineas to any French artillerist who could hit his home. [a prominent feature in Yorktown, even today]
The legend, where I've seen it repeated by respected authorities does not mention him seeing Cornwallis near it, and indications are that Cornwallis was holed up in a root cellar on his uncle's property. His home was damaged, though not beyond repair. It is a National Park site and is visited by thousands every year.
Nelson did pay back all the loans that he could during his lifetime, but all of VA's elite were suffering through a post-war recession. Cash was in short supply. He sold some of his properties in Europe before his death. When he died, though 'cash poor', he was still among the top ten largest landholders in VA. His will allowed for the selling of several properties in VA to raise cash to pay off the rest of his debts. After those debts were settled, the remaining several [9or 10] plantations were divided up among his family, a friend, and one of his slaves.
The Hessians seized the home of Francis Hopkinson of New Jersey.
The reason we know that Hessians occupied Hopkinson's home is that one of those Hessians borrowed a book from Hopkinson's personal library, left a message on the flyleaf, and had it returned to the family.
Francis Lewis had his home and everything destroyed, his wife imprisoned. She died within a few months.
Lewis's Long Island home was apparently destroyed. Probably some of his NY City properties were destroyed too. His business, turned over to his son but still a source of income, appeared to survive the war intact.
Mrs. Lewis refused the order given to all Long Islanders to leave Long Island. [Mr. Lewis was in Philadelphia attending to his duties in Congress] She was imprisoned, and later exchanged for the wives of two British officials who the Americans had captured.
Her health, though probably adversely affected by her imprisonment had been failing for years. She died about two years after her exchange in Philadelphia.
Richard Stockton, who signed that Declaration, was captured and mistreated and his health broken to the extent that he died at fifty-one. His estate was pillaged.
Stockton is alone in that he is the only one of the five Signers captured that was not a military prisoner of war. He spent a couple months in prison. His release is reported in various places as being obtained by an exchange, or by his signing of an oath to cease rebellious activities. About a year after his release he began fighting a lip cancer which took his life in two more years.
His estate, Morven, in Princeton, was pillaged by soldiers from both sides as they passed through. One of George Washington's letters asks American soldiers to return any of Stockton's letters or papers that they may have picked up.
Thomas Heyward, Jr., was captured when Charleston fell.
When Charleston fell, all of the officers of the Rebel Army were paroled. Shortly afterward, the British had second thoughts, and ordered them all rounded up. Heyward and Rutledge, and Middleton were all officers.
John Hart was driven from his wife's bedside while she was dying. Their thirteen children fled in all directions for their lives His fields and gristmill were laid waste. For more than a year he lived in forests and caves and returned home after the war to find his wife dead, his children gone, his properties gone; he died a few weeks later of exhaustion and a broken heart.
Hart's wife died a month before the British invaded NJ. Their children were grown, there being only two who were still minors. The British occupied that part of NJ for less than 2 months.
After returning to his farm, Hart spent 2 more years serving in congress before taking a leave due to his kidney stones which claimed his life in 1789, nearly 2 1/2 years after his harrowing experiences in the woods.
Lewis Morris saw his land destroyed, his family scattered.
Morris' property was in one of those contested areas of Westchester County, NY. His son, Lewis Morris Jr., wrote to him in 1776;
Lewis Jr. was speaking of the American Army, and accurately predicted the fall of Morrissania [Morris' home] to the British in coming weeks.
Morris' family was surely scattered. His children were mostly grown, and 3 of his sons served in the Continental Army. His wife, and I assume his younger children, went to live with friends when the Continental Army moved onto his property.
His wife later joined him in Philadelphia. After the war, they returned to Morrissania & rebuilt it to the magnificence which it shows to visitors today. He died there, with his family in 1798.
Philip Livingston died within a few months from the hard ships of the war.
Livingston died in York PA, June 12, 1778 of 'dropsy'. He was attending Congress, but took a months leave for his illness before he died.
John Hancock history remembers best due to a quirk of fate rather than anything he stood for. That great, sweeping signature attesting to his vanity towers over the others. One of the wealthiest men in New England, he stood outside Boston one terrible night of the war and said, "Burn Boston, though it makes John Hancock a beggar, if the public good requires it."
The legend goes that he used those words to affirm his agreement with those in the Committee of Safety who were suggesting burning Boston as a means of saving it from the British. [in 1775]
Of the fifty-six, few were long to survive.
Nine died before the revolution was ended in 1783. Another twelve died in the next decade. Among them was an octogenarian, 2 septuarians, and none under 44. 19 yrs after signing, half were still alive. Most lived longer than their fathers had.
Five were captured by the British and tortured before they died.
Only one was captured because he signed. Richard Stockton was arrested by Loyalists and turned over to the British to be held in prison. The other four were prisoners of war.
There is no record of any Signer being tortured, or mistreated because they signed. The prisons on both sides were hell-holes.
Twelve had their homes .. . from Rhode Island to Charleston .. . sacked, looted, occupied by the enemy, or burned.
Here Harvey contradicts himself. Above he writes that three of the Georgian Signers' homes were looted, and here he implies that the looting, etc. stretched from Rhode Island to Charleston. Has he missed the Boston home of John Adams that was occupied, or the New Hampshire home of Bartlett which was burned by Loyalists in 1774?
I'll restate my thoughts from above. These homes were treated no differently than those of other wealthy Americans whose properties were in occupied territory. Both Armies took what they needed to fight a war.
Two lost their sons in the army. One had two sons captured.
I'll treat these two together because it is a puzzle I've tried to unravel for some time. James Witherspoon was killed at the battle of Germantown.
Abraham Clark had two sons that were captured.
Historians are in agreement on those two facts. The second son that was killed remains a puzzle that no-one seems to be able to answer. I have two theories.
1. The second son referred to is the son of Henry Laurens. Laurens was a President of Congress during the war, though he was not a member of the 1776 Congress, so he did not sign. But his son was killed in a skirmish near Charleston. If the author meant to include Laurens, however, the number of 'captured' would rise to six, as Laurens himself was arrested on his way to Europe, and spent several months in the Tower of London.
2. Historians agree that Thomas and Aaron Clark, sons of Signer Abraham Clark, were POW's. Most accounts note that Captain Thomas was captured twice and escaped both times. What they aren't in agreement on is a young 19 yr. old Andrew Clark who died as a prisoner on the prison ship 'Jersey'. Even the Abraham Clark society cannot seem to either prove or disprove the connection to the Signer. But if we accept that the author meant the youngest Clark was killed, then he should have said 'one signer had three sons captured'.
3. A third possibility, and one I haven't been able to follow up on yet is John Morton.
I saw this posting on a genealogy mail list ;
I haven't seen it mentioned in the bios I've read about Morton-- but I haven't read a thorough biography and most bios pay little notice to the children of the Signers. The ones that do mention John Morton mention a son named John born about 1755, so he would have been the right age. The Falmmouth was described in Barber's history of NY as a Hospital ship, though it made little difference in the mortality onboard.
A promising lead, but yet to be confirmed.
Nine of the fifty-six died in the war, from its hardships or from its more merciful bullets.
Nine died during the war. One died from a bullet; fired in a duel with a fellow officer. None died at the hands of the British, and none died due to 'hardships'. One was lost at sea.
It's easy enough to check to see who died before the war was over. Here they are, and, when available, a cause of death.
Morton, John,PA, died April 1777 aged 53 of ??? (K&BJ give no detail of how)[father died ae41]
Gwinnett, Button,GA, died May 16, 1777 aged 42, from wounds sustained in a duel.
Livingston, Philip,NY, died June 12, 1778 at 62, of "dropsy of the chest" [father died ae63]
Lynch, Thomas Jr.,SC, died [probably] in 1779 ae30. Lost at sea. [father died ae49]
Hart, John,NJ,died May 11, 1779; aged 68[66?], of kidney stones [father died ae63]
Ross, George,PA, died July 14, 1779 aged 49, of gout [father died ae76]
Hewes, Joseph,NC, died Oct 10, 1779, aged 49, according to Bakeless of "overwork and irregular bachelor hours" [father died ae80-90]
Taylor, George,PA, Feb 23, 1781 at 65 yr. old
Stockton, Richard,NJ, died Feb 28, 1781 at 50, of Cancer of the lip. [father died ae86]
I don't know what impression you had of the men who met that hot summer in Philadelphia. But I think it is important that we remember this about them.
They were not poor men or wild-eyed pirates. They were men of means. Rich men, most of them, who enjoyed much ease and luxury in their personal living.
Despite disagreeing with the overall tone of this essay, Harvey and I are nearly in agreement here. With the notable exception of Sam Adams, who was neither rich nor 'calm', and a few of the more radical members of that Congress, most of the Signers were respectable statesmen of great wealth.
Not hungry men. Prosperous men. Wealthy landowners, substantially secure in their prosperity.
But they considered liberty-and this is as much as I shall say of it-they had learned that liberty-is so much more important than security-that they pledged their lives . . . their fortunes . . . and their sacred honor.
Much has been written about the motivations of the Signers and the Founders in general. From my study, I believe that as a body they were putting their country above their own personal gains. There is no doubt that they risked their own lives & property along with that of their countrymen.
I'm not sure whether I admire more the representative that voted no, but signed the Declaration or the representative that personally felt it was a bad idea, but voted yes because his constituents had expressed their wishes that he support independence.
I admire the Congress at large for, when it was inevitable that the vote would pass, doing everything in their power to make a united front. Both the delegates who stayed home and the new appointees, who were unable to take part in much more than a vote that had already been decided, are a tribute to a body who put the country and their countrymen above their personal egos.
And they fulfilled their pledge.
They paid the price.
And freedom was born.
All of the Americans who lived in those times 'paid the price'. John Adams wrote years later that all through the Revolution he would have given anything to have things returned to the way they were. He wasn't lamenting his own losses. Any human who has ever seen the suffering of the soldiers and innocents in a war zone has to wonder if an armed conflict is ever a worthy price for change. But the clock can't be turned back. The deed was done. And from it a glorious country emerged.
For other members of the Limbaugh family, see Limbaugh family. For radio show, see The Rush Limbaugh Show.
Limbaugh in 2009
|Born||Rush Hudson Limbaugh III|
(1951-01-12) January 12, 1951 (age 67)
Cape Girardeau, Missouri, U.S.
|Residence||Palm Beach, Florida, U.S.|
|Alma mater||Southeast Missouri State University(did not graduate)|
|Occupation||Radio host, political commentator|
|Salary||US$84 million (2017[update])|
|Net worth||US$500 million (2016)|
|Spouse(s)||Roxy Maxine McNeely (1977–1980, div.)|
Michelle Sixta (1983–1990, div.)
Marta Fitzgerald (1994–2004, div.)
Kathryn Rogers (2010–)
Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (LIM-baw; born January 12, 1951) is an American radio talk show host and conservative political commentator. He currently resides in Palm Beach, Florida, where he broadcasts The Rush Limbaugh Show. According to December 2015 estimates by Talkers Magazine, Rush Limbaugh has a cume (cumulative weekly audience) of around 13.25 million unique listeners (listening for at least five minutes), making his show the most listened-totalk-radio program in the US.
Since he was 16, Limbaugh has worked a series of disc jockey jobs. His talk show began in 1984 at Sacramento, California radio station KFBK, featuring his ongoing format of political commentary and listener calls. In 1988, Limbaugh began broadcasting his show nationally from radio station WABC in New York City, and the show's flagship station became WOR in 2014.
In the 1990s, Limbaugh's books The Way Things Ought to Be (1992) and See, I Told You So (1993) made The New York Times Best Seller list. In his books and on his show, Limbaugh frequently criticizes what he regards as liberal policies and politicians, as well as what he perceives as a pervasive liberal bias in major U.S. media. Limbaugh is among the highest-paid people in U.S. media, signing a contract in 2008 for $400 million through 2016. In 2017, Forbes listed his earnings at $84 million for the previous 12 months, and ranked him the 11th highest-earning celebrity in the world. His most recent contract, signed on July 31, 2016, will take his radio program to 2020, its 32nd year.
See also: Limbaugh family
Limbaugh was born in Cape Girardeau, Missouri, the son of Mildred Carolyn "Millie" (née Armstrong) and Rush Hudson Limbaugh, Jr. His father was a lawyer and a U.S. fighter pilot who served in the China Burma India Theater of World War II. His mother was a native of Searcy, Arkansas. The name "Rush" was originally chosen for his grandfather to honor the maiden name of family member Edna Rush.
Limbaugh is of part German ancestry. His family has many lawyers, including his grandfather, father and brother David. His uncle, Stephen N. Limbaugh, Sr. is a federal judge in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri. His cousin, Stephen N. Limbaugh, Jr., is currently a judge in the same court, appointed by George W. Bush. Rush Limbaugh, Sr., Limbaugh's grandfather, was a Missouri prosecutor, judge, special commissioner, member of the Missouri House of Representatives from 1930 until 1932, and longtime president of the Missouri Historical Society. The Federal Courthouse in Cape Girardeau is named for Limbaugh's grandfather Rush.
Limbaugh began his career in radio as a teenager in 1967 in his hometown of Cape Girardeau, using the name Rusty Sharpe. Limbaugh graduated from Cape Girardeau, Missouri Central High School in 1969. He played football. Because of his parents' desire to see him attend college, he enrolled in Southeast Missouri State University but left the school after two semesters and one summer. According to his mother, "he flunked everything," and "he just didn't seem interested in anything except radio."
Limbaugh's biographer states that a large part of his life has been dedicated to gaining his father's respect and approval.
After dropping out of college, Limbaugh moved to McKeesport, Pennsylvania. In 1972, he became a Top 40 music disc jockey on WIXZ, a small AM radio station that reached much of the Pittsburgh area. He started with an afternoon show and later did mornings, broadcasting under the name Jeff Christie. Limbaugh moved to Pittsburgh station KQV in 1973 as the evening disc jockey, succeeding Jim Quinn. He was fired in late 1974, when the station was sold to Taft Broadcasting. Limbaugh was reportedly told by management that he would never make it as on-air talent, and should consider going into sales. Unable to find another job in local radio, Limbaugh moved back home to Cape Girardeau. He became a lifelong fan of the Pittsburgh Steelers from his time in the region.
For the rest of the decade Limbaugh took jobs at several radio stations, working in music radio, before settling in Kansas City. In 1979, he left radio and accepted a position as director of promotions with the Kansas City Royals baseball team. There he developed a close friendship with then-Royals star third baseman and future Hall of FamerGeorge Brett; the two remain close friends.
In 1984, Limbaugh returned to radio as a talk show host at KFBK in Sacramento, where he replaced Morton Downey, Jr. The repeal of the Fairness Doctrine—which had required that stations provide free air time for responses to any controversial opinions that were broadcast—by the FCC in 1987 meant stations could broadcast editorial commentary without having to present opposing views. Daniel Henninger wrote, in a Wall Street Journal editorial, "Ronald Reagan tore down this wall (the Fairness Doctrine) in 1987 ... and Rush Limbaugh was the first man to proclaim himself liberated from the East Germany of liberal media domination."
On August 1, 1988, after achieving success in Sacramento and drawing the attention of former ABC Radio President Edward McLaughlin, Limbaugh moved to New York City and began his national radio show. He debuted just weeks after the Democratic National Convention, and just weeks before the Republican National Convention. Limbaugh's radio home in New York City was the talk-formatted WABC (AM), and this remained his flagship station for many years, even after Limbaugh moved to West Palm Beach, Fla., from where he continues to broadcast his show. Limbaugh's show moved on Jan. 1, 2014 to WABC's cross-town rival WOR (AM), its current New York outlet.
In December 1990, journalist Lewis Grossberger wrote in The New York Times that Limbaugh had "more listeners than any other talk show host" and described Limbaugh's style as "bouncing between earnest lecturer and political vaudevillian." Limbaugh's rising popularity coincided with the Persian Gulf War, and his support for the war effort and his relentless ridicule of peace activists. The program gained more popularity and was moved to stations with larger audiences, eventually being broadcast on over 650 radio stations nationwide.
In 1992, Democrat Bill Clinton was elected president of the United States. Limbaugh satirized the policies of Clinton and First LadyHillary Clinton, as well as those of the Democratic Party. When the Republican Partywon control of Congress in the 1994 midterm elections, the freshman Republican class awarded Limbaugh an honorary membership in their caucus. This event confirmed him as an influential figure on the national political scene.
Limbaugh had publicized personal difficulties in the 2000s. In late 2001, he acknowledged that he had gone almost completely deaf, although he continued his show. He was able to regain much of his hearing with the help of a cochlear implant in 2001.
In 2003, Limbaugh had a brief stint as a pro football commentator with ESPN. He resigned a few weeks into the 2003 NFL season after making comments about the press coverage for quarterbackDonovan McNabb that caused controversy and accusations of racism on the part of Limbaugh. His comment about McNabb was: "I don't think he's been that good from the get-go. I think what we've had here is a little social concern in the NFL. I think the media has been very desirous that a black quarterback do well. They're interested in black coaches and black quarterbacks doing well. I think there's a little hope invested in McNabb and he got a lot of credit for the performance of his team that he really didn't deserve. The defense carried this team." A sportswriter construed the comment as racist against himself and other sportswriters. Another sports analyst wrote Limbaugh's viewpoint was shared by "many football fans and analysts" and "it is ... absurd to say that the sports media haven't overrated Donovan McNabb because he's black."
In 2003, Limbaugh stated that he was addicted to pain medication, and sought treatment. In April 2006, Limbaugh turned himself in to authorities, on a warrant issued by the state attorney's office, and was arrested "on a single charge of prescription fraud." His record was later expunged.
In 2013, news reports indicated that Cumulus Media, some of whose stations carried Limbaugh's program in certain major markets, including New York, Chicago, Dallas, Washington D.C. and Detroit, was considering dropping his show when its contract with Limbaugh expired at the end of that year, reportedly because the company believed that its advertising revenues had been hurt by listener reaction to controversial Limbaugh comments. Limbaugh himself said that the reports were overblown and that it was a matter of routine dollars-and-cents negotiations between Cumulus and his network syndication partner, Premiere Networks, a unit of Clear Channel Communications. Ultimately, the parties reached agreement on a new contract, with Limbaugh's show moving from its long-time flagship outlet in New York, the Cumulus-owned WABC, to the latter's cross-town rival, the Clear Channel-owned WOR, starting Jan. 1, 2014, but remaining on the Cumulus-owned stations it was being carried on in other markets.
The Rush Limbaugh Show
Main article: The Rush Limbaugh Show
Limbaugh's radio show airs for three hours each weekday beginning at noon Eastern Standard Time on both AM and FM radio. The program is also broadcast worldwide on the Armed Forces Radio Network.
Radio broadcasting shifted from AM to FM in the late 1970s because of the opportunity to broadcast music in stereo with better fidelity. Limbaugh's show was first nationally syndicated in August 1988, in a later stage of AM's decline. Limbaugh's popularity paved the way for other conservative talk radio programming to become commonplace on AM radio. The show became so popular in the 1990s, even some FM stations picked it up. In March 2006, WBAL in Baltimore became the first major market radio station in the country to drop Limbaugh's nationally syndicated radio program. In 2007, Talkers magazine again named him No. 1 in its "Heavy Hundred" most important talk show hosts.
Limbaugh frequently mentions the EIB (Excellence In Broadcasting) Network, trademarked in 1990. In the beginning, his show was co-owned and first syndicated by Edward F. McLaughlin, former president of ABC, who founded EFM Media in 1988, with Limbaugh's show as his first product. In 1997, McLaughlin sold EFM to Jacor Communications, which was ultimately bought up by Clear Channel Communications. Today, Limbaugh owns a majority of the show, which is syndicated by the Premiere Radio Networks.
According to a 2001 article in U.S. News & World Report, Limbaugh had an eight-year contract, at the rate of $31.25 million a year. In 2007, Limbaugh earned $33 million. A November 2008 poll by Zogby International found that Rush Limbaugh was the most trusted news personality in the nation, garnering 12.5 percent of poll responses.
Limbaugh signed a $400 million, eight-year contract in 2008 with what was then Clear Channel Communications, making him the highest-paid broadcaster on terrestrial radio. On August 2, 2016, Limbaugh signed a four-year extension of the 2008 contract. At the announcement of the extension, Premiere Radio Networks and iHeartMedia announced that his show experienced audience growth with 18% growth in adults 25–54, 27% growth with 25–54 women, and ad revenue growth of 20% year over year.
Limbaugh had a syndicated half-hour television show from 1992 through 1996, produced by Roger Ailes. The show discussed many of the topics on his radio show, and was taped in front of an audience. Rush Limbaugh says he loves doing his radio show, but not a TV show.
Other media appearances
Limbaugh's first television hosting experience came March 30, 1990, as a guest host on Pat Sajak's CBS late-night talk show, The Pat Sajak Show.ACT UP activists in the audienceheckled Limbaugh repeatedly; ultimately the entire studio audience was cleared. In 2001, Sajak said the incident was "legendary around CBS".
On December 17, 1993, Limbaugh appeared on the Late Show with David Letterman. Limbaugh also guest-starred (as himself) on a 1994 episode of Hearts Afire. He appeared in the 1995 Billy Crystal film Forget Paris, and in 1998 on an episode of The Drew Carey Show.
In 2007, Limbaugh made cameo appearances on Fox News Channel's short-lived The 1/2 Hour News Hour in a series of parodies portraying him as the future President of the United States. In the parodies, his vice president was fellow conservative pundit Ann Coulter. That year, he also made a cameo in the Family Guy episode "Blue Harvest," a parody of Star Wars in which Limbaugh can be heard on the radio claiming that the "liberal galactic media" were lying about climate change on the planet Hoth, and that Lando Calrissian's administrative position on Cloud City was a result of affirmative action. More recent Family Guy appearances have happened in the 2010 episode "Excellence in Broadcasting," and 2011's "Episode VI: It's a Trap!," a parody of Return of the Jedi.
Influence and legacy
As a result of his television program, Limbaugh became known for wearing distinctive neckties. In response to viewer interest, Limbaugh launched a series of ties designed primarily by his then-wife Marta.
On January 30, 2010, Limbaugh was a judge for the 2010 Miss America pageant in Las Vegas. In early 2011, Limbaugh was the subject of the third season of Golf Channel's The Haney Project, in which instructor Hank Haney coached him in eight episodes.
Awards and recognition
In 1992, Ronald Reagan sent Limbaugh a letter in which he thanked him "for all you're doing to promote Republican and conservative principles ... [and] you have become the Number One voice for conservatism in our Country."
In 1994, Republicans in the U.S. House of Representatives made Limbaugh an honorary member.
Limbaugh was awarded the Marconi Radio Award for Syndicated Radio Personality of the Year in 2014 (given by the National Association of Broadcasters). He has won the award four times previously (in 1992, 1995, 2000, and 2005). He was inducted into the National Radio Hall of Fame in 1993. He was later inducted into the National Association of Broadcasters Hall of Fame in 1998.
In 2002, Talkers Magazine ranked him as the greatest radio talk show host of all time. Limbaugh is the highest-paid syndicated radio host.
On March 29, 2007, Limbaugh was awarded the inaugural William F. Buckley, Jr. Award for Media Excellence, by the Media Research Center, a conservative media analysis group.
On January 5, 2008, the conservative magazine Human Events announced Limbaugh as their 2007 Man of the Year.
On December 1, 2008, TV Guide reported that Limbaugh was selected as one of America's top ten most fascinating people of 2008 for a Barbara WaltersABC special that aired on December 4, 2008.
On February 28, 2009, following his self-described "first address to the nation" lasting 90 minutes, carried live on CNN and Fox News and recorded for C-SPAN, Limbaugh received CPAC's "Defender of the Constitution Award", a document originally signed by Benjamin Franklin, given to someone "who has stood up for the First Amendment ... Rush Limbaugh is for America, exactly what Benjamin Franklin did for the Founding Fathers ... the only way we will be successful is if we listen to Rush Limbaugh."
Zev Chafets, whose book Rush Limbaugh: An Army of One was published May 25, 2010, wrote after the first primaries of the 2010 U.S. election season that Limbaugh was "the brains and the spirit behind" the Republican Party's "resurgence" in the wake of the 2008 election of President Barack Obama. In his May 20, 2010, New York Times op-ed column, Chafets pointed among others to Sen.Arlen Specter's defeat, after being labeled by Limbaugh "Republican in Name Only," and to Sarah Palin, whose "biggest current applause line—Republicans are not just the party of no, but the party of hell no—came courtesy of Mr. Limbaugh." More generally, Chafets wrote, Limbaugh has argued the party-of-no Ronald Reagan conservative course for the Republicans vigorously, notably since six weeks after the Obama inauguration, and has been fundamental to, and encouraging to, the more prominently noted Tea Party movement.
Rush Limbaugh was inducted into the Hall of Famous Missourians on May 14, 2012. A bronze bust of Limbaugh is now on display in the Missouri State Capitol building in Jefferson City. It is the only such bust with its own security camera to discourage vandalism.
The Children's Book Council named Limbaugh their 2014 Author of the Year for his book Rush Revere and the Brave Pilgrims: Time-Travel Adventures with Exceptional Americans.
In 1992, Limbaugh published his first book, The Way Things Ought To Be, followed by See, I Told You So in 1993. Both became number one on the New York Times Best Seller list, The Way Things Ought to Be remaining there for 24 weeks. The text of the first book was taped by Limbaugh, and transcribed and edited by Wall Street Journal Journal writer John Fund. In the second book, Joseph Farah of WorldNetDaily is named as his collaborator.
In 2013, Limbaugh authored a children's book titled Rush Revere and the Brave Pilgrims: Time-Travel with Exceptional Americans. The book was released on October 29, 2013. It won Limbaugh the Author of the Year Award at the Children's Choice Book Awards in 2014.
In 2014, Limbaugh authored his second children's book titled Rush Revere and the First Patriots: Time-Travel with Exceptional Americans. For his new series, Limbaugh was selected as an author-of-the year finalist for the annual Children's and Teen Choice Book Awards.
In late 2014, Limbaugh authored his third children's book titled Rush Revere and the American Revolution. Limbaugh and his wife, Kathryn, dedicated the third book to the U.S. military and their families.
In his first New York Times best seller, Limbaugh describes himself as conservative, and is critical of broadcasters in many media outlets for claiming to be objective. He has criticized political centrists, independents, and moderate conservatives, claiming they are responsible for Democrat Barack Obama's victory over Republican John McCain in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election and inviting them to leave the Republican party. He calls for the adoption of core conservative philosophies in order to ensure the survival of the Republican party.
James Rainey of the Los Angeles Times quoted Limbaugh as saying after the 2008 election of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States that the Democrats will "take your 401(k), put it in the Social Security Trust Fund."
Limbaugh considers Roe v. Wade as "bad constitutional law" and supports overturning it, leaving the decision to the states.
Limbaugh has been noted for making controversial race-related statements with regard to African-Americans. He once opined that all newspaper composite pictures of wanted criminals resembled Jesse Jackson, and another time that "the NFL all too often looks like a game between the Bloods and the Crips without any weapons." While employed as what he describes as an "insult-radio" DJ, he used a derogatory racial stereotype to characterize a black caller he could not understand, telling the caller to "take that bone out of your nose and call me back." In March 2010, Limbaugh used the similarity of recently resigned Rep. Eric Massa's surname to the slavery-era African-American pronunciation of "master" to make a pun on the possibility that Gov. David Paterson, New York's first African-American governor, would pick Massa's replacement: "Let's assume you're right [caller]. So, David Paterson will become the massa who gets to appoint whoever gets to take Massa's place. So, for the first time in his life, Paterson's gonna be a massa. Interesting, interesting."
Limbaugh has asserted that African-Americans, in contrast with other minority groups, are "left behind" socially because they have been systematically trained from a young age to hate the United States because of the welfare state.
Limbaugh supports capital punishment, saying "the only thing cruel about the death penalty is last-minute stays."
Dismissal of consent in sexual relations
Limbaugh dismisses the concept of consent in sexual relations. He views consent as "the magic key to the left."
Limbaugh has been an outspoken critic of what he sees as leniency towards criminal drug use in America. On his television show on October 5, 1995, Limbaugh stated, "too many whites are getting away with drug use" and illegal drug trafficking. Limbaugh proposed that the racial disparity in drug enforcement could be fixed if authorities increased detection efforts, conviction rates, and jail time for whites involved in illegal drugs.
Limbaugh is critical of environmentalism and climate science. He has disputed claims of anthropogenic global warming, and the relationship between CFCs and depletion of the ozone layer, saying the scientific evidence does not support them. Limbaugh has argued against the scientific consensus on climate change saying it is "just a bunch of scientists organized around a political proposition." Limbaugh has used the term "environmentalist wacko" when referring to left-leaning environmental advocates. As a rhetorical device, he has also used the term to refer to more mainstream climate scientists and other environmental scientists and advocates with whom he disagrees.
Limbaugh has written that "there are more acres of forestland in America today than when Columbus discovered the continent in 1492," a claim that is disputed by the United States Forest Service and the American Forestry Association, which state that the precolonial forests have been reduced by about 24 percent or nearly 300 million acres.
Limbaugh is critical of feminism, saying that: "Feminism was established so as to allow unattractive women easier access to the mainstream of society." He also popularized the term "feminazi", referring to about two dozen feminists "to whom the most important thing in life is ensuring that as many abortions as possible occur." He also used the term referring to the half-million large 2017 Women's March as the "Deranged Feminazi March". He credited his friend Tom Hazlett, a professor of law and economics at George Mason University, with coining the term.
Iraq prisoner abuse
On the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal, Limbaugh said, "This is no different than what happens at the Skull and Bones initiation ... And we're going to ruin people's lives over it and we're going to hamper our military effort, and then we are going to really hammer them because they had a good time."
On January 16, 2009, Limbaugh commented on the (then-upcoming) Obama presidency, "I hope he fails." Limbaugh later said that he wants to see Obama's policies fail, not the man himself. Speaking of Obama, Limbaugh said, "He's my president, he's a human being, and his ideas and policies are what count for me."
Use of entertainment props
Limbaugh utilizes props to introduce his monologues on various topics. On his radio show, news about the homeless has often been preceded with the Clarence "Frogman" Henry song "Ain't Got No Home." For a time, Dionne Warwick's song "I Know I'll Never Love This Way Again" preceded reports about people with AIDS. These later became "condom updates" preceded by Fifth Dimension's song, "Up, Up and Away". For two weeks in 1989, on his Sacramento radio show, Limbaugh performed "caller abortions" where he would end a call suddenly to the sounds of a vacuum cleaner and a scream. He would then deny that he had "hung up" on the caller, which he had promised not to do. Limbaugh claims that he used this gag to illustrate "the tragedy of abortion" as well as to highlight the question of whether abortion constitutes murder. During the Clinton administration, while filming his television program, Limbaugh referred to media coverage of Socks, the Clintons' cat. He then stated, "But did you know there is also a White House dog?" and a picture of Chelsea Clinton