But times change, and Mr. Palen is now taking a more antagonistic approach. “All Types Welcome” is a condemnation of blood donation rules set by the Food and Drug Administration that prohibit most gay or bisexual men from giving; before donating, they have to forgo same-sex sexual encounters for at least a year, a contentious precaution resulting from concerns about H.I.V.
“It’s exclusion, and it’s ridiculous, and it’s discriminatory,” Ms. Lepore said in an interview.
Mark Burg, the producer who has helped steer the “Saw” franchise, was even more blunt. “We want this policy changed,” he said.
An F.D.A. spokeswoman, Lyndsay Meyer, noted that the celibacy rule, enacted in 2015, replaced a more restrictive policy. “While acknowledging at the time that the change to a 12-month deferral was less than hoped for by some, the F.D.A. considered this to be a first step,” Ms. Meyer said, adding that studies are underway to “help inform further changes to policy.”
The Red Cross, the nation’s largest blood supplier, has also drawn fire for its approach to transgender donors. Until recently, federal guidelines recommended that trans people be required to register at blood centers under the gender they were assigned at birth.
“The Red Cross believes all potential blood donors should be treated with fairness, equality and respect,” Jodi D. Sheedy, a Red Cross spokeswoman, said in an email.
She added, “Accurate donor histories and medically supported donor deferral criteria are critical” to blood supply safety.
Mr. Palen is one of Hollywood’s savviest marketers, and his latest campaign reflects several trends, including a focus on diversity. In the past, Mr. Palen has cast young women (most often white) as nurse mascots for the “Saw” blood drives. “Now we have different races, genders, ages and sexual orientations,” he said. Joining Ms. Lepore and Mr. Ross as twisted nurses are people like Nyakim Gatwech, a Sudanese model; a YouTube and Instagram star named Mykie; and the sexagenarian event producer Susanne Bartsch.
While inclusion remains far from Hollywood’s strength, many consumer brands have started to loudly ring the representation bell. Last year, for instance, CoverGirl named its first “cover boy” and made a beauty blogger, Nura Afia, its first hijab-wearing cosmetics ambassador.
It is also notable that Mr. Palen is tapping into rage culture. Hollywood marketers are mostly allergic to controversy, but nothing lights a fire on social media like indignation, and a growing number of advertisers are trying to spark thought-provoking discussions. The North Face, for instance, indirectly references President Trump’s plans for a Mexico border wall with its new “Walls Are Meant for Climbing” brand campaign.
The topical approach can backfire. Just ask Pepsi and Kendall Jenner. “It’s easy to be provocative,” Mr. Palen said. “It’s less easy to be provocative in a way that inspires people to see your movie.”
The “Saw” nurses were an early example of what Hollywood types now like to call “world building.” There are no major nurse characters in the movies (some of which are also not particularly bloody). Rather, Mr. Palen’s creations are meant to add a layer of immersion for fans. The first “Saw” nurse was a Lionsgate executive; Mr. Palen took her photo in his backyard and posted the image online to promote the blood drive.
“Maybe a few horror fan sites covered it,” he said. “There was no such thing as going viral back then.”
In a snapshot of how powerful the internet has come as a marketing tool, Lionsgate now has roughly 420 million followers on platforms like Instagram, Facebook and Twitter. To gain additional reach for the “All Types Welcome” effort, Mr. Palen recruited the eight social media stars. “Everyone’s making content, everyone’s a creator, everyone has a microphone,” he said. “So to have the nurse campaign play in that space and have personalities feel some ownership in the campaign felt like a great way to evolve.”
And no more backyard shoots for Mr. Palen, who took over a cavernous stage for two days — complete with a D.J. and an open bar — this time around. As the Pharrell Williams song “Marilyn Monroe” played toward the end of the second day, Ms. Lepore teetered on a stack of metallic boxes in white spike heels. “Sexy, fetish nurse doll” is how Mr. Palen had described her look.
“Amazing,” he murmured, standing on tiptoe to take her picture.
When Mr. Palen was done, the 16 people in the room clapped, and Ms. Lepore did a little curtsy.Continue reading the main story
Organizing Your Analysis
This resource covers how to write a rhetorical analysis essay of primarily visual texts with a focus on demonstrating the author’s understanding of the rhetorical situation and design principles.
Contributors:Mark Pepper, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli
Last Edited: 2015-08-30 05:01:04
There is no one perfect way to organize a rhetorical analysis essay. In fact, writers should always be a bit leery of plug-in formulas that offer a perfect essay format. Remember, organization itself is not the enemy, only organization without considering the specific demands of your particular writing task. That said, here are some general tips for plotting out the overall form of your essay.
Like any rhetorical analysis essay, an essay analyzing a visual document should quickly set the stage for what you’re doing. Try to cover the following concerns in the initial paragraphs:
- Make sure to let the reader know you’re performing a rhetorical analysis. Otherwise, they may expect you to take positions or make an evaluative argument that may not be coming.
- Clearly state what the document under consideration is and possibly give some pertinent background information about its history or development. The intro can be a good place for a quick, narrative summary of the document. The key word here is “quick, for you may be dealing with something large (for example, an entire episode of a cartoon like the Simpsons). Save more in-depth descriptions for your body paragraph analysis.
- If you’re dealing with a smaller document (like a photograph or an advertisement), and copyright allows, the introduction or first page is a good place to integrate it into your page.
- Give a basic run down of the rhetorical situation surrounding the document: the author, the audience, the purpose, the context, etc.
Thesis Statements and Focus
Many authors struggle with thesis statements or controlling ideas in regards to rhetorical analysis essays. There may be a temptation to think that merely announcing the text as a rhetorical analysis is purpose enough. However, especially depending on your essay’s length, your reader may need a more direct and clear statement of your intentions. Below are a few examples.
1. Clearly narrow the focus of what your essay will cover. Ask yourself if one or two design aspects of the document is interesting and complex enough to warrant a full analytical treatment.
The website for Amazon.com provides an excellent example of alignment and proximity to assist its visitors in navigating a potentially large and confusing amount of information.
2. Since visual documents often seek to move people towards a certain action (buying a product, attending an event, expressing a sentiment), an essay may analyze the rhetorical techniques used to accomplish this purpose. The thesis statement should reflect this goal.
The call-out flyer for the Purdue Rowing Team uses a mixture of dynamic imagery and tantalizing promises to create interest in potential, new members.
3. Rhetorical analysis can also easily lead to making original arguments. Performing the analysis may lead you to an argument; or vice versa, you may start with an argument and search for proof that supports it.
A close analysis of the female body images in the July 2007 issue of Cosmopolitan magazine reveals contradictions between the articles’ calls for self-esteem and the advertisements’ unrealistic, beauty demands.
These are merely suggestions. The best measure for what your focus and thesis statement should be the document itself and the demands of your writing situation. Remember that the main thrust of your thesis statement should be on how the document creates meaning and accomplishes its purposes. The OWl has additional information on writing thesis statements.
Analysis Order (Body Paragraphs)
Depending on the genre and size of the document under analysis, there are a number of logical ways to organize your body paragraphs. Below are a few possible options. Which ever you choose, the goal of your body paragraphs is to present parts of the document, give an extended analysis of how that part functions, and suggest how the part ties into a larger point (your thesis statement or goal).
This is the most straight-forward approach, but it can also be effective if done for a reason (as opposed to not being able to think of another way). For example, if you are analyzing a photo essay on the web or in a booklet, a chronological treatment allows you to present your insights in the same order that a viewer of the document experiences those images. It is likely that the images have been put in that order and juxtaposed for a reason, so this line of analysis can be easily integrated into the essay.
Be careful using chronological ordering when dealing with a document that contains a narrative (i.e. a television show or music video). Focusing on the chronological could easily lead you to plot summary which is not the point of a rhetorical analysis.
A spatial ordering covers the parts of a document in the order the eye is likely to scan them. This is different than chronological order, for that is dictated by pages or screens where spatial order concerns order amongst a single page or plane. There are no unwavering guidelines for this, but you can use the following general guidelines.
- Left to right and top to down is still the normal reading and scanning pattern for English-speaking countries.
- The eye will naturally look for centers. This may be the technical center of the page or the center of the largest item on the page.
- Lines are often used to provide directions and paths for the eye to follow.
- Research has shown that on web pages, the eye tends to linger in the top left quadrant before moving left to right. Only after spending a considerable amount of time on the top, visible portion of the page will they then scroll down.
The classic, rhetorical appeals are logos, pathos, and ethos. These concepts roughly correspond to the logic, emotion, and character of the document’s attempt to persuade. You can find more information on these concepts elsewhere on the OWL. Once you understand these devices, you could potentially order your essay by analyzing the document’s use of logos, ethos, and pathos in different sections.
The conclusion of a rhetorical analysis essay may not operate too differently from the conclusion of any other kind of essay. Still, many writers struggle with what a conclusion should or should not do. You can find tips elsewhere on the OWL on writing conclusions. In short, however, you should restate your main ideas and explain why they are important; restate your thesis; and outline further research or work you believe should be completed to further your efforts.