This bibliography of Abraham Lincoln is a comprehensive list of written and published works about or by Abraham Lincoln, 16thPresident of the United States. In terms of primary sources containing Lincoln's letters and writings, scholars rely on The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, edited by Roy Basler, and others. It only includes writings by Lincoln, and omits incoming correspondence. In the six decades since Basler completed his work, some new documents written by Lincoln have been discovered. Previously, a project was underway at the Papers of Abraham Lincoln to provide "a freely accessible comprehensive electronic edition of documents written by and to Abraham Lincoln". The Papers of Abraham Lincoln completed Series I of their project The Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln in 2000. They electronically launched The Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln, Second Edition in 2009, and published a selective print edition of this series. Attempts are still being made to transcribe documents for Series II (non-legal, pre-presidential materials) and Series III (presidential materials).
There have been 16,000 books published on Lincoln—125 on the assassination alone—more than any other American. This listing is therefore highly selective and is based on the reviews in the scholarly journals, and recommended readings compiled by scholars.
- Beveridge, Albert J. Abraham Lincoln: 1809-1858 (1928). 2 vol. to 1858; notable for strong, political coverage that tends to favor Stephen Douglasonline edition
- Burlingame, Michael. Abraham Lincoln: A Life (2 vol 2008); 2024pp; the most highly detailed life excerpt and text search
- Carwardine, Richard. Lincoln: A Life of Purpose and Power (2003), prize winning
- Lord Charnwood, Abraham Lincoln (1916), first bio by a non-American, excerpt and text search
- DeRose, ChrisCongressman Lincoln: The Making of America's Greatest President (2013) Strong political coverage, especially the one term in Congress. https://www.amazon.com/Congressman-Lincoln-Chris-DeRose/dp/1451695144
- Guelzo, Allen C.Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President (1999) online edition
- Harris, William C. Lincoln's Rise to the Presidency (2007) conservative author argues Lincoln was basically conservative excerpt and text search
- Nicolay, John George and John Hay. Abraham Lincoln: a History (1890); online at Volume 1 and Volume 2vol 6 10 volumes in all; highly detailed narrative of era written by Lincoln's top aides
- Luthin, Reinhard H. The Real Abraham Lincoln (1960), emphasis on politics
- McPherson, James M. Abraham Lincoln (2009), short excerpt and text search
- Neely, Mark E. The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia (1984), detailed articles on many men and movements associated with AL
- Neely, Mark E. The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America (1993), Pulitzer Prize–winning author
- Oates, Stephen B.With Malice Toward None: The Life of Abraham Lincoln (1994) excerpt and text search
- Randall, James G. Lincoln the President (4 vol., 1945–55; reprint 2000.) by prize-winning scholar
- Sandburg, Carl. Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years (2 vol 1926) vol. 1 online(Subscription required.)vol. 2 online(Subscription required.); The War Years (4 vol 1939). Pulitzer Prize–winning biography by the famous poet
- Thomas, Benjamin P.Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952; 2nd ed. 2008) online edition
- White, Jr., Ronald C. (2009). A. Lincoln: A Biography. Random House, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4000-6499-1.
- Angle, Paul M., Here I Have Lived: A History of Lincoln's Springfield, 1821–1865, (1935) online edition
- Belz, Herman. Abraham Lincoln, Constitutionalism, and Equal Rights in the Civil War Era (1998)
- Boritt, Gabor S. Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream (1994). Lincoln's economic theory and policies
- Boritt, Gabor S. ed. Lincoln the War President (1994)
- Bruce, Robert V. Lincoln and the Tools of War (1956) on weapons development during the war online edition
- Bush, Bryan S. Lincoln and the Speeds: The Untold Story of a Devoted and Enduring Friendship (2008) ISBN 978-0-9798802-6-1
- Chittenden, Lucius E., Recollections of President Lincoln and His Administration, (1891). – Google Books
- Cox, LaWanda (1981). Lincoln and Black Freedom: A Study in Presidential Leadership. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-87249-400-8.
- Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln Reconsidered: Essays on the Civil War Era (1960)
- Donald, David Herbert. We Are Lincoln Men: Abraham Lincoln and His Friends Simon & Schuster, (2003).
- Emerson, James (2007). The Madness of Mary Lincoln. Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-2771-3.
- Foner, Eric. The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (2011); Pulitzer Prize excerpt and text search
- Gerleman, David J. Representative Lincoln at Work: Reconstructing a Legislative Career from Original Archival Documents (2017) Lincoln's congressional career 
- Guelzo, Allen C., Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America, Simon & Schuster (2004). ISBN 0-7432-2182-6
- Guelzo, Allen C., Lincoln and Douglas: The Debates that Defined America, Simon & Schuster (2008). ISBN 978-0-7432-7320-6
- Hall, Roger Lee (2009). Lincoln and Liberty: Music from Abraham Lincoln's Era. PineTree Press.
- Harris, William C. With Charity for All: Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union (1997). AL's plans for Reconstruction
- Hendrick, Burton J. Lincoln's War Cabinet (1946) online edition
- Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition: And the Men Who Made It (1948) ch 5: "Abraham Lincoln and the Self-Made Myth"
- Howe, Daniel Walker, Why Abraham Lincoln Was a Whig.Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 16.1 (1995)
- Lea, James Henry (1909). The Ancestry of Abraham Lincoln. Houghton Mifflin.
- Kunhardt Jr., Phillip B., Kunhardt III, Phillip, and Kunhardt, Peter W. Lincoln: An Illustrated Biography. Gramercy Books, New York, 1992. ISBN 0-517-20715-X
- Laxner, James, Staking Claims to a Continent: John A. Macdonald, Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, and the Making of North America (2016). Anansi Press ISBN 978-1-77089-430-3
- McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (1988). Pulitzer Prize winner surveys all aspects of the war
- Neely, Mark E. The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties (1992). Pulitzer Prize winner. online version
- Neely, Mark E. Lincoln and the Triumph of the Nation: Constitutional Conflict and the American Civil War (2011)
- Oakes, James. The Radical and the Republican: Frederick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, and the Triumph of Antislavery Politics. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2007. ISBN 0-393-06194-9
- Ostendorf, Lloyd, and Hamilton, Charles, Lincoln in Photographs: An Album of Every Known Pose, Morningside House Inc., 1963, ISBN 0-89029-087-3.
- Paludan, Philip S. The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln (1994), thorough treatment of Lincoln's administration
- Polsky, Andrew J. "'Mr. Lincoln's Army' Revisited: Partisanship, Institutional Position, and Union Army Command, 1861–1865." Studies in American Political Development (2002), 16: 176–207
- Randall, James G. Lincoln the Liberal Statesman (1947)
- Richardson, Heather Cox. The Greatest Nation of the Earth: Republican Economic Policies during the Civil War (1997)
- Shenk, Joshua Wolf. Lincoln's Melancholy: How Depression Challenged a President and Fueled His Greatness (2005)
- Williams, Kenneth P. (1985). Lincoln Finds a General: A Military Study of the Civil War. 1. New York: macmilian Press.
- —— (1949). Lincoln Finds a General: A Military Study of the Civil War. 2. New York: macmilian Press.
- —— (1949). Lincoln Finds a General: A Military Study of the Civil War. 3. New York: macmilian Press.
- —— (1985). Lincoln Finds a General: A Military Study of the Civil War. 4. New York: macmilian Press.
- —— (1949). Lincoln Finds a General: A Military Study of the Civil War. 5. New York: Macmillan Press.
- White, Jonathan W. Abraham Lincoln and Treason in the Civil War: The Trials of John Merryman (2011)
- White, Jonathan W. Emancipation, the Union Army, and the Reelection of Abraham Lincoln (2014)
- Williams, T. Harry. Lincoln and His Generals (1967).
- Wilson, Douglas L. Lincoln's Sword: The Presidency and the Power of Words (2006) ISBN 1-4000-4039-6.
Historiography and memory
- Barr, John M. "Holding Up a Flawed Mirror to the American Soul: Abraham Lincoln in the Writings of Lerone Bennett Jr.," Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 35 (Winter 2014), 43-65.
- Barr, John M. Loathing Lincoln: An American Tradition from the Civil War to the Present (LSU Press, 2014).
- Boritt, Gabor S., ed. The Historian's Lincoln U. of Illinois Press, 1988
- Bowden, Mark (June 2013). "Abraham Lincoln is an idiot : the difficulty of recognizing excellence in its own time". The Culture File. History. The Atlantic. 311 (5): 40–41.
- Burkhimer, Michael. One hundred essential Lincoln books (2003), examines the major books
- Foner, Eric, ed. Our Lincoln: New Perspectives on Lincoln and His World (2009), essays by scholars excerpt and text search
- Holt, Michael F. "Lincoln Reconsidered." Journal of American History 96.2 (2009): 451-455. online
- Holzer, Harold and Craig L. Symonds, eds. Exploring Lincoln: Great Historians Reappraise Our Greatest President (2015), essays by 16 scholars
- Kunhardt III, Philip B. et al. Looking for Lincoln: The Making of an American Icon (2012).
- Manning, Chandra, "The Shifting Terrain of Attitudes toward Abraham Lincoln and Emancipation", Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association, 34 (Winter 2013), 18–39.
- Neely, Mark E. "The Lincoln Theme since Randall's Call: The Promises and Perils of Professionalism." Papers of the Abraham Lincoln Association 1 (1979): 10-70. in JSTOR
- Peterson, Merrill D. Lincoln in American Memory (1994). wide-ranging survey of how Lincoln was remembered after 1865.
- Pinsker, Matthew. "Lincoln Theme 2.0." Journal of American History 96.2 (2009): 417-440. online
- Randall, James G. "Has the Lincoln Theme Been Exhausted?." American Historical Review 41#2 (1936): 270-294. online
- Schwartz, Barry. Abraham Lincoln and the Forge of National Memory (2003) excerpt and text search
- Schwartz, Barry. Abraham Lincoln in the post-heroic era: history and memory in late twentieth-century America (2008) excerpt and text search
- Smith, Adam I.P. "The 'Cult' of Abraham Lincoln and the Strange Survival of Liberal England in the Era of the World Wars", Twentieth Century British History, (Dec 2010) 21#4 pp. 486–509.
- Smith, John David. "" Gentlemen, I too, am a Kentuckian": Abraham Lincoln, the Lincoln Bicentennial, and Lincoln's Kentucky in Recent Scholarship." The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 106.3/4 (2008): 433-470. in JSTOR
- Spielberg, Steven; Goodwin, Doris Kearns; Kushner, Tony. "Mr. Lincoln Goes to Hollywood", Smithsonian (2012) 43#7 pp. 46–53.
- Zilversmit, Arthur (1980). "Lincoln and the Problem of Race: A Decade of Interpretations"(PDF). Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. 2 (11): 22–45.
Lincoln in art and popular culture
- Lauriston, Bullard. F. (1952). Lincoln in Marble and Bronze. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
- Ferguson, Andrew (2008). Land of Lincoln: Adventures in Abe's America. Grove Press. ISBN 978-0-8021-4361-7.
- Mead, Franklin B. (1932). Heroic Statues in Bronze of Abraham Lincoln: Introducing The Hoosier Youth by Paul Manship. The Lincoln National Life Foundation.
- Moffatt, Frederick C. (1998). Errant Bronzes: George Grey Barnard's Statues of Abraham Lincoln. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press.
- Murry, Freeman Henry Morris (1972) . Emancipation and the Freed in American Sculpture. Books For Libraries Press.
- Petz, Weldon (1987). Michigan's Monumental Tributes to Abraham Lincoln. Historical Society of Michigan.
- Redway, Maurine Whorton; Bracken, Dorothy Kendall (1957). Marks of Lincoln on Our Land. New York: Hastings House, Publishers.
- Savage, Kirk (1997). Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race War and Monument in Nineteenth Century America. Princeton University Press.
- Tice, George (1984). Lincoln. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.
- Angle, Paul McClelland; Earl Schenck Miers (1992). The Living Lincoln: the Man, his Mind, his Times, and the War He Fought, Reconstructed from his Own Writings. Barnes & Noble Publishing. ISBN 978-1-56619-043-5.
- Basler, Roy P. et al., eds. (1953). The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. 9 vols. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-0172-7.
- Browne, Francis Fisher (1995). The Every-Day Life of Abraham Lincoln. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-6115-2.
- Lincoln, Abraham (2000). ed by Philip Van Doren Stern, ed. The Life and Writings of Abraham Lincoln. Modern Library Classics.
- Fehrenbacher, Don E., ed. Abraham Lincoln: Speeches and Writings 1832–1858 (Library of America, ed. 1989) ISBN 978-0-940450-43-1
- Fehrenbacher, Don E., ed. Abraham Lincoln: Speeches and Writings 1859–1865 (Library of America, ed. 1989) ISBN 978-0-940450-63-9
- Lincoln, Abraham (1997). ed by Bob R. Daniels, ed. Partial Personal Journal of Abraham Lincoln. American Heritage History.
- Stowell, Daniel W., et al., eds. The Papers of Abraham Lincoln: Legal Documents and Cases. (4 vols.) University of Virginia Press, 2008
Attacks on Lincoln
- DiLorenzo, Thomas (2002). The Real Lincoln. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-7615-2646-3.
- Marshall, John A., American Bastille (1870) Fifth edition: A History of the Illegal Arrests and Imprisonment of American Citizens in the Northern and Border States on Account of Their political opinions during the late Civil War. Part 1
- Masters, Edgar Lee. Lincoln: The Man (1931)
- Booknotes interview with Harold Holzer on The Lincoln-Douglas Debates, August 22, 1993.
- Booknotes interview with Douglas Wilson on Honor's Voice: The Transformation of Abraham Lincoln, March 29, 1998.
- Booknotes interview with Lerone Bennett, Jr. on Forced Into Glory, September 10, 2000.
- Booknotes interview with Edward Steers, Jr. on Blood on the Moon: The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, February 17, 2002.
- Booknotes interview with Frank Williams on Judging Lincoln, November 10, 2002.
- Booknotes interview with Matthew Pinsker on Lincoln's Sanctuary: Abraham Lincoln and the Soldiers' Home, December 21, 2003.
- Booknotes interview with Mario Cuomo on Why Lincoln Matters, July 25, 2004.
- C-SPAN Q&A interview with Harold Holzer on Lincoln President-Elect: Abraham Lincoln and the Great Secession Winter, 1860-1861, November 9, 2008
- In Depth discussion of books on Lincoln, February 1, 2009 with Frank J. Williams and Edna Greene Medford.
- ^Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln
- ^Papers of Abraham Lincoln
- ^Law Practice of Abraham Lincoln
- ^Stowell, ed. The Papers of Abraham Lincoln: Legal Documents and Cases
- ^Papers of Abraham Lincoln
- ^Steven Levingston, "Bill O'Reilly's 'Lincoln' book banned from Ford's Theatre because of 'mistakes'," '"Washington Post Nov. 12.2011
- ^Grossman, Lev (January 31, 2008). "The Lincoln Compulsion". Time.
- ^"Lincoln". C-SPAN. December 24, 1995. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- ^"Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President". C-SPAN. April 16, 2000. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- ^"The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln". C-SPAN. June 12, 1994. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
- ^"Lincoln in American Memory". C-SPAN. August 14, 1994. Retrieved March 26, 2017.
10. You must never fully rely on any one source for important information.
Everyone makes mistakes. All scholarly journals and newspapers contain “corrections” sections in which they acknowledge errors in their prior work. And even the most neutral writer is sometimes guilty of not being fully objective. Thus, you must take a skeptical approach to everything you read.
The focus of your search should be on finding accurate information and forming a full picture of an issue, rather than believing the first thing you read. This is particularly true on the Internet, where anyone can publish, cheaply and quickly. Always verify important information by confirming it with multiple sources.
9. You especially can’t rely on something when you don’t even know who wrote it.
Very few Wikipedia editors and contributors use their real name or provide any information about who they are. In order to properly evaluate information on the Internet, there are three questions you must always ask; the first two are “Who wrote this?” and “Why did they write it?” On sites with anonymous authors like Wikipedia, you can't find this information.
8. The contributor with an agenda often prevails.
In theory, the intellectual sparring at the heart of Wikipedia's group editing process results in a consensus that removes unreliable contributions and edits. But often the contributor who “wins” is not the one with the soundest information, but rather the one with the strongest agenda.
In March 2009, Irish student Shane Fitzgerald, who was conducting research on the Internet and globalization of information, posted a fake quotation on the Wikipedia article about recently deceased French composer Maurice Jarre. Due to the fact that the quote was not attributed to a reliable source, it was removed several times by editors, but Fitzgerald continued re-posting it until it was allowed to remain.
Fitzgerald was startled to learn that several major newspapers picked up the quote and published it in obituaries, confirming his suspicions of the questionable ways in which journalists use Web sites, and Wikipedia, as a reliable source. Fitzgerald e-mailed the newspapers letting them know that the quote was fabricated; he believes that otherwise, they might never have found out.
7. Individuals with agendas sometimes have significant editing authority.
Administrators on Wikipedia have the power to delete or disallow comments or articles they disagree with and support the viewpoints they approve. For example, beginning in 2003, U.K. scientist William Connolley became a Web site administrator and subsequently wrote or rewrote more than 5,000 Wikipedia articles supporting the concept of climate change and global warming. More importantly, he used his authority to ban more than 2,000 contributors with opposing viewpoints from making further contributions.
According to The Financial Post, when Connolley was through editing, “The Medieval Warm Period disappeared, as did criticism of the global warming orthodoxy.” Connolley has since been stripped of authority at Wikipedia, but one blogger believes he continues to post.
Furthermore, in 2007, a new program called WikiScanner uncovered individuals with a clear conflict of interest that had written or edited some Wikipedia entries. Employees from organizations such as the CIA, the Democratic National Party and Diebold were editing Wikipedia entries in their employers' favor.
6. Sometimes “vandals” create malicious entries that go uncorrected for months.
Due to the fact that Wikipedia can be edited by anyone with an Internet connection, users can falsify entries. Though in many instances reviewers quickly delete this “vandalism,” occasionally false information can remain on Wikipedia for extended periods of time.
For example, John Seigenthaler, a former assistant to Robert Kennedy, was falsely implicated in the assassinations of the Kennedy brothers on his Wikipedia biography for a period of more than 100 days without his knowledge.
5. There is little diversity among editors.
According to a 2009 survey by the Wikimedia Foundation, 87 percent of Wikipedia editors are male, with an average age of 26.8 years. According to executive director Sue Gardner, they hail mostly from Europe and North America, and many of them are in graduate school.
Although most of these editors are undoubtedly intelligent and passionate about enhancing the accuracy of Wikipedia, the site falls far short of its ideals of providing “the sum of all human knowledge” without the broad perspectives that a more diversified pool of editors would bring.
4. The number of active Wikipedia editors has flatlined.
The number of active Wikipedia editors (those who make at least five edits a month) has stopped growing. It remains to be seen whether the current number of active editors can maintain and continue updating Wikipedia.
3. It has become harder for casual participants to contribute.
According to the Palo Alto Research Center, the contributions of casual and new contributors are being reversed at a much greater rate than several years ago. The result is that a steady group of high-level editors has more control over Wikipedia than ever.
A group of editors known as “deletionists” are said to “edit first and ask questions later,” making it harder for new contributors to participate, and making it harder for Wikipedia—which, again, aspires to provide “the sum of all human knowledge”—to overcome the issue that it is controlled by a stagnant pool of editors from a limited demographic.
2. Accurate contributors can be silenced.
Deletionists on Wikipedia often rely on the argument that a contribution comes from an “unreliable source,” with the editor deciding what is reliable. An incident last year showed the degree to which editors at the very top of Wikipedia were willing to rely on this crutch when it suits their purpose.
When the Taliban kidnapped New York Times reporter David Rohde in Afghanistan, the paper convinced 40 media organizations plus Wikipedia not to report on it out of concerns that it would compromise Rohde's safety. Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales told the Times, once Rohde was free, that “We were really helped by the fact that it (postings on Rohde) hadn’t appeared in a place we would regard as a reliable source.” Thus, Wales and other senior Wikipedia editors showed they were willing to rely on the “unreliable source” canard to delete information they had been told by a very reliable source was true, even when a more noble reason—Rohde’s safety—would have justified it.
And finally, the number one reason you can't cite or rely on Wikipedia:
1. It says so on Wikipedia.
Wikipedia says, “We do not expect you to trust us.” It adds that it is “not a primary source” and that “because some articles may contain errors,” you should “not use Wikipedia to make critical decisions.”
Furthermore, as Wikipedia notes in its “About” section, “Users should be aware that not all articles are of encyclopedic quality from the start: they may contain false or debatable information.”