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Je dois disserter sur le sujet suivant :
Un célèbre spécialiste du XVIII ème siècle termine sa conférence par ce mot :
«  Finalement, le sous-titre de Candide est trompeur, le conte est plus une réflexion sur le bonheur qu’une critique de l’optimisme »
Partagez-vous l’avis de A. L’eperonnier ?
J’ai pensé faire un plan dialectique (thèse/ antithèse/synthèse), mais je n’arrive pas à trouver pour la troisième partie. Si vous pouviez m’aider…Merci.
Voilà mon plan (j’aimerai aussi savoir s’il tient la route)

I) Certes  Candide accorde une place importante sur l’optimisme
1-La théorie de Leibniz
Introduire sa théorie, l’expliquer.

2-Caricature de Leibniz
Dénoncer cette théorie à travers le personnage de Pangloss, philosophe ridicule, qui s’obstine à soutenir les idées leibniziennes, en dépit de tous les malheurs  qui lui arrivent (théorie démentie par la réalité, illogismes, harmonie préétablie, causes finales (exemple des lunettes), relation de cause à effet aberrante…

3- Candide s’inscrit dans un but philosophique : Rejet de la métaphysique/ Vanité des discours
Réponse du Derviche à Pangloss (« Te taire ») très claire : invitation au silence à tous les métaphysiciens devant l’incompréhensible.
« Il faut cultiver notre jardin » solution de Voltaire, il ne sert à rien d’échafauder des théories sur ce que l’on ne peut vérifier  mais plutôt AGIR. Il oppose l’activité simple et utile aux raisonnements stériles.

II-Mais Candide est aussi une réflexion sur le bonheur

1-La richesse matérielle
La richesse matérielle n’est pas une source de bonheur, exemple de Popocuranté , qui a tout pour être heureux (privilèges, argent, culture….) mais qui s’ennuie. On pourra aussi parler des moutons de Candide chargés de richesse mais qui ne lui procureront pas le bonheur.

2-L’ambition politique
La  puissance ne peut  apporter la satisfaction à l’homme. Exemple des rois déchus  qui montre qu’il s’agit bien d’une illusion  et énumération de Pangloss au dernier chapitre où il cite des politiciens dont l’ambition politique a échoué.

3-« il faut cultiver notre jardin »
Candide  semble  enfin avoir trouvé un bonheur à portée de main qui consiste à travailler pour améliorer la condition de l’homme et ainsi concourir à son bonheur  (exemple de la famille du vieillard qui illustre la famille idéal et  donc par un exemple concret la possibilité d’un bonheur simple loin de l’utopie d’Eldorado). Cependant, ce n’est qu’ « un semblant » de bonheur : « il était naturel que Candide mènerait la vie du monde la plus agréable » mais en fait pas de bonheur (laideur de  Cunégonde : l’amour idéalisé n’apporte pas le bonheur, Candide prend conscience de l’existence du mal dont il ne pourra jamais se départir)

Conclusion partielle : le bonheur n’est  qu’une utopie mais sa quête donne un sens à la vie humaine
J’ai pensé que pour la troisième partie que  je pouvais parler peut-être des autres critiques dans le livre (esclavage, fanatisme, …) mais je ne sais pas trop si cela conviendrait …

Problématique : Candide n’est-il qu’une critique de l’optimisme ?
  Est-ce que ça va ?


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