est, (b) an assessment of the potential privacy impacts resulting from the use of the program, (c) the procedures and processes of the organization that will use the program, and (d) countermeasures that terrorists might use to foil the program.
The committee developed the framework presented in Chapter 2 to help decision makers determine the extent to which a program is effective in achieving its intended goals, compliant with the laws of the nation, and reflective of the values of society, especially with regard to the protection of data subjects’ privacy. This framework is intended to be applied by taking into account the organizational and human contexts into which any given program will be embedded as well as the countermeasures that terrorists might take to foil the program.
The framework is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 2.
CONCLUSIONS REGARDING DATA MINING7
Policy and Law Regarding Data Mining
Conclusion 5.The current policy regime does not adequately address violationsof privacy that arise from information-based programs using advanced analyticaltechniques, such as state-of-the-art data mining and record linkage.
For example, an activity for counterterrorist purposes, possibly a data mining activity, is likely to require the linking of data found in multiple databases. The literature on record linkage suggests that, even assuming the data found in any given database to be of high quality, the data derived from linkages (the “mosaic” consisting of the collection of linked data) are likely to be error-prone. Certainly, the better the quality of the individual lists, the fewer the errors that will be made in record linkage, but even with high-quality lists, the percentage of false matches and false nonmatches may still be uncomfortably high. In addition, it is also the case that certain data mining algorithms are less sensitive to record linkage errors as inputs, since they use redundant information in a way that can, at times, identify such errors and downweight or delete them. Again, even in the best circumstances, such problems are currently extremely
Terrorism implies the use of violence to terrorize a population or government for certain political, religious or ideological purpose. The threat of terrorism has become a worldwide concern with several parts of the world reeling under frequent terrorist strikes. With little concern for human lives, terrorists continue to strike with impunity, leaving a trail of death and destruction, wherever they choose to inflict their blows.
There have been several terror attacks in India, resulting in grievous loss of lives and properties. Here we are providing you some useful articles on terrorism under various categories according to varying words limits. You can choose any of them as per your need:
Article on Terrorism 1 (300 words)
Terrorism has emerged as a major threat to the unity and integrity of India. The masterminds of terror seek to achieve their objectives by creating an atmosphere of fear with a view to destabilize India. The major regions affected by terrorist activities in India include Jammu and Kashmir, east-central and south-central India (Naxalism) and the Seven Sisters (North-East).
Causes behind terror:
Unemployment has been one of the major causes due to which terrorist groups lure the young generation easily by providing them hoards of easy money. In return, the youngsters have to spread hatred, and indulge in bloodbath and killings on the street.
Poverty stricken young people belonging to poor socio-economic background are the ultimate target of the ISI, as they get easily influenced to do their bidding in return of easy money.
A Wide Network: India has already been ranked among the top ten terrorism affected countries in the world. Apart from radical terrorism affected states such as Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Tripura, Assam, Nagaland and Manipur, there are other states which have been victims of Naxalite terrorism, which emanated from Naxalbari village in West Bengal through a movement by the landless against the land owners of that village. This movement soon spread across the country.
Currently, there are various terrorist organizations operating in the country in a clandestine manner with their members hard to be recognized. The authorities have established their links with various international terrorism organizations most of which are being operated on a global level to supply arms, ammunition in different countries to destabilize the nation.
Poverty and unemployment are among the major reasons fuelling the growth of terrorism in India. If we want to curb terrorism, we are required to address the causes which have given rise to radicalization of youth in different parts of the country.
Article on Terrorism 2 (500 words)
Terrorism means the unlawful use of violence (or the threat of violence) intended to create terror for achieving a religious, economic, ideological or political goal, in deliberate disregard of the safety of victims.
According to a report issued by the Global Terrorism Index 2014, India was ranked among the top ten countries greatly affected by terrorism activities.
Causes of terrorism in India
There are several causes of terrorism in India. To begin with, there are political reasons for the growth of terrorism in India. This is primarily seen in The North-East region. The state government there have failed to control and manage large-scale illegal Muslim immigration from Bangladesh.
Economic causes too contribute to terrorism in India. These include rural unemployment, exploitation of landless labourers by those who own land and lack of land reforms. The major states affected by such causes include Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. The absence of land reforms, rural unemployment, exploitation of landless labourers by land owners, economic grievances and perceptions of gross social injustice in these states have given rise to ideological terrorist groups such as the various Marxist/Maoist groups waging a war against the respective state government.
Thirdly, religious causes too lead to terrorism in India. Punjab witnessed the growth of terrorism when certain organisations of Sikhs led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale raised the demand for Khalistan, an independent state for Sikhs. Some elements belonging to different organisations shifted to terrorism for the creation of a separate state known as Khalistan for the Sikhs. Similarly, Jammu & Kashmir has been reeling under religious extremism which seeks to appropriate all rights for Muslim majority.
Agencies Fighting Terrorism in India
National Intelligence Wings: Among them, mention can be made of Intelligence Bureau, an internal intelligence agency under the Ministry of Home Affairs; the Research and Analysis Wing, an external intelligence agency under the Cabinet secretariat; the Defence Intelligence, and the intelligence directorate generals of the armed forces.
Physical security agencies: Among them, we have the Central Industrial Security Force, which is responsible for security at airports and sensitive establishments, and the National Security Guards (NSG), a specially trained force, which is called in the wake of emergencies such as hijacking, hostage-taking, etc. Then we have the Special Protection Group (SPG), which is responsible for the security of the prime minister and former prime ministers.
Paramilitary forces: Not to be left behind, forces such as Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and the Border Security Force (BSF), assist the police in counter-terrorism operations in times of need.
The Army: The Indian Army has a significant role in India’s fight against terrorism. It has a permanent position in J&K, which is bearing the brunt of large-scale infiltration from Pakistan and the presence of divisive elements within the troubled state.
At the immediate level, terrorism results in loss of lives and livelihood, and destruction of properties. But overall, terrorism creates a negative environment for the growth of trade and commerce, leading to huge losses, recession and unemployment. India needs a strong political will to fight the scourge of terrorism unitedly.
Article on Terrorism 3 (600 words)
Terrorism is an act of repeated violence committed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for peculiar, criminal or political reasons. The immediate human victims of terrorism are generally chosen randomly or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators.
India has long been a victim of terrorism. Terrorism in India is said to be largely sponsored by Pakistan, through its secret service and intelligence agency, Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). Pakistan has consistently denied its involvement, but in July 2016, the Indian Government released the data on a series of terror strikes in India since 2005 that claimed 707 lives and left over 3,200 injured, all pointing at Pakistan’s involvement.
Kidnapping: Terrorists’ favourite weapon
Kidnapping has been a favourite tactic employed by terrorist groups whether they are religious or non-religious for ransom. They have sought to make others agree to their demands through kidnapping. For instance, a Romanian diplomat was kidnapped by the Khalistan Commando Force, a Sikh terrorist group, in New Delhi in 1991. Similarly, the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front kidnapped some Israeli tourists in J&K in 1992.
Terrorist groups have affinity with terrorist groups of their ilk in other countries. For instance, the Marxist groups of India are aligned with Maoist groups of Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. The separatist, terrorist Kashmiri outfits are connected with the religious, fundamentalist and jihadi organizations of Pakistan. Similar is the link between the Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) with jihadi elements in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.
The overseas diaspora too funds and supports home-grown terrorist groups both in moral and material terms. In its heydays, the Khalistan movement in Punjab found a resonance with the overseas Sikh community in the UK and Canada and flourished rapidly. The Mirpuris, migrants from Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, who have settled in Western countries, are said to help Kashmiri organizations in all sorts of ways. Similarly, the Marxist groups within India find encouragement and support from the people of Marxist leanings within the overseas Indian community.
Causes of Terrorism
There are several causes of terrorism in India: political, economic, and religious.
The political cause of terrorism is primarily seen in Tripura and Assam where the political factors resulted in terrorism after the respective state governments failed to control and manage the large-scale illegal Muslim immigration from Bangladesh. The terrorist outfits capitalized upon the alienation of the daughters and sons of the soil who did not wish to share the opportunities of employment with the refugees.
Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh are prime examples of economic causes of terrorism in India. Factors such as rural unemployment, exploitation of landless labourers and lack of land reforms created perceptions of gross social injustice. All this led to the rise of ideological groups such as the several Marxist/Maoist groups waging a war against the State.
One of instance of religious terrorism was the growth of Sikh militancy in Punjab for the creation of an independent Sikh nation called Khalistan. In Jammu and Kashmir, the dream of a separate Kashmir nation has drawn many Muslim organizations together against India.
Terrorist activities have extremely adverse implications for any country, India being no exception. Terrorism poses a deadly threat to the unity and integrity of the nation. The society, media and political parties must make it a common cause to fight the menace of terrorism in a cohesive and united spirit. We have to show to the world that we are not a soft state in dealing with any terrorist strikes on our soil.
Article on Terrorism 4 (800 words)
Terrorism can be defined as an intentional act of terror or violence on the part of clandestine individual/s, group or state actors to inflict death, injury or property damage, or induce fear among its victims. Terrorism seeks to take refuse in posturing of political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature.
The victims of violence are generally chosen from a target population, to serve a message. Terrorism poses a grave threat to the citizens of India.
Terrorism: Spreading tentacles in India
India has been tackling the menace of terrorism ever since its independence. Jammu and Kashmir has always been a troubled state with Pakistan using it as a means of waging a proxy war against India. The North-East region has been the hotbed of part insurgent-part terrorist movements. The nation also had to grapple with the pro-Khalistan movements in Punjab in the eighties though now the situation has returned to normal there.
Causes of terrorism
Political factors led to insurgency-cum-terrorism especially in Assam and Tripura. The governments of these states failed to control large-scale illegal immigration of Muslims from Bangladesh. It resulted in insurgent movements that raised the demand of economic benefits for the sons and daughters of the soil.
Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar are prime examples of economic causes behind terrorism. Against the backdrop of the absence of land reforms, rural unemployment, exploitation of landless labourers by land owners, etc, the economic grievances of people of the states multiplied, giving rise to ideological terrorist groups such as the various Marxist/Maoist groups operating under different names. They consider the ideology of Marx, Engel, Mao, Lenin as the only valid economic path. All of them resort to terrorist activities to reclaim social justice for the people.
In J&K, there is an unmistakable religious angle to terrorism. Pakistan has been making consistent efforts to cause religious polarization in the state. The state has various pro-Pak terrorist organizations such as Jaish-e-Mohammad and Hizbul Mujahideen.
Funding of Terrorism
Terrorist and insurgent groups in India receive funding from various sources such as Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI); religious, fundamentalist and pan-Islamic jihadi organizations in Pakistan; ostensibly charitable organizations in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia; the mafia group led by Dawood Ibrahim who operates from Karachi, Pakistan.
Sometimes, terrorists resort to extortions and ransom payments for releasing hostages, and collect contributions — voluntary or forced — from the people living in the area where they operate. Narcotics smuggling is another source of funding for terrorist organizations and they use informal hawala channel to transmit funds.
Terrorist Attacks in India
Terrorists have struck time and again in India. Some of such incidents are as follows:
- 1985 bombing of an Air India flight from Canada to India, killing all 329 people on board.
- 1993 Mumbai bomb blasts, which killed about 250 civilians.
- 2001 Attack on Indian Parliament on 13 December 2001, in which 9 policemen and parliament staff were killed, besides all five terrorists who were identified as Pakistani nationals.
- 2005 Delhi bombings on 29 October 2005, which killed more than 60 people and injured at least 200 others.
- 2006 Varanasi bombings in which 15 people were reported to have been killed and as many as 101 others were injured.
- 2006 Mumbai attack, when two of the prime hotels, a landmark train station, and a Jewish Chabad house, in South Mumbai, were attacked and sieged.
- 2007 Hyderabad bombings, where two bombs exploded almost simultaneously on 25 August 2007.
- 2007 Mecca Masjid bombing in Hyderabad which left 15 people dead in the immediate aftermath.
- 2008 Bangalore serial blasts in which two people were killed and 20 injured.
- 2010 Varanasi bombing on 7 December 2010 that killed a toddler, and set off a stampede in which 20 people, including four foreigners, were injured.
- 2011 High Court bombing on Wednesday, 7 September 2011 at outside Gate No. 5 of the Delhi High Court, killing 12 people and injuring 76.
- 2013 Naxal attack in Darbha valley, Chhattisgarh, which killed 28 people.
- 2015 Gurdaspur attack in Dina Nagar, Gurdaspur, Punjab, killing 10 people.
- 2016 attack at PathankotAir Force Station, killing 7 people.
- 2016 Pampore attack, claiming 8 lives.
- 2016 Uri attack that left 20 dead.
- 2016 Baramulla attack and 2016 Handwara attack at Rashtriya Riffles Camp.
Conclusion: Terrorism presents a grave challenge to the people and government of India. If we want to effectively deal with this menace, the entire nation needs to stand united to fight the perpetrators of terror. All political parties need to rise above their partisan lines to give a befitting reply to terrorists and their masterminds operating from across the borders. India has to demonstrate that it is not a soft state but a capable nation with zero tolerance to any terrorist activities carried out by the enemies of the nation.
Essay on Terrorism
Speech on Terrorism
Slogans on Terrorism